Pope Urban VIII (1623 to 1644) ordered the bronze ceiling of the Pantheon's portico melted down. At the very top, where the dome would be at its weakest and vulnerable to collapse, the oculus actually lightens the load. Le premier bâtiment du Panthéon a été bâti par Agrippa, général et homme politique romain, sous Auguste, vers -25 (25 av. [59] It is the only masonry dome to not require reinforcement. [67], Circles and squares form the unifying theme of the interior design. Le Panthéon est un temple que les Grecs et les Romains consacraient à certains de leurs dieux, par exemple le Panthéon de Rome, dédié à tous les dieux. Fu fondato nel 27 a.C. dall'arpinate Marco Vipsanio Agrippa, genero di Augusto. As a result, the interior decorative zones do not line up. In the second chapel is the tomb of King Victor Emmanuel II (died 1878). Domitian rebuilt the Pantheon, which was burnt again in 110 AD. From him we know that "the capitals, too, of the pillars, which were placed by M. Agrippa in the Pantheon, are made of Syracusan bronze",[23] that "the Pantheon of Agrippa has been decorated by Diogenes of Athens, and the Caryatides, by him, which form the columns of that temple, are looked upon as masterpieces of excellence: the same, too, with the statues that are placed upon the roof,"[24] and that one of Cleopatra's pearls was cut in half so that each half "might serve as pendants for the ears of Venus, in the Pantheon at Rome". A competition was held to decide which architect should design it. Filippo Brunelleschi, among other architects, looked to the Pantheon as inspiration for their works. Langue; Suivre; Modifier; Fichier; Historique du fichier; Utilisation du fichier; Usage global du fichier; Métadonnées; Taille de cet aperçu : 800 × 519 pixels. [21], The form of Agrippa's Pantheon is debated. The sarcophagus was given by Pope Gregory XVI, and its inscription reads ILLE HIC EST RAPHAEL TIMUIT QUO SOSPITE VINCI / RERUM MAGNA PARENS ET MORIENTE MORI, meaning "Here lies Raphael, by whom the mother of all things (Nature) feared to be overcome while he was living, and while he was dying, herself to die". The Governance of Rome. The Pantheon (UK: /ˈpænθiən/, US: /-ɒn/;[1] Latin: Pantheum,[nb 1] from Greek Πάνθειον Pantheion, "[temple] of all the gods") is a former Roman temple, now a Catholic church (Basilica di Santa Maria ad Martyres or Basilica of St. Mary and the Martyrs), in Rome, Italy, on the site of an earlier temple commissioned by Marcus Agrippa during the reign of Augustus (27 BC – 14 AD). On peut voir su… Today, it is not known what gods were included. The Pantheon (UK: / ˈ p æ n θ i ə n /, US: /-ɒ n /; Latin: Pantheum, from Greek Πάνθειον Pantheion, "[temple] of all the gods") is a former Roman temple, now a Catholic church (Basilica di Santa Maria ad Martyres or Basilica of St. Mary and the Martyrs), in Rome, Italy, on the site of an earlier temple commissioned by Marcus Agrippa during the reign of Augustus (27 BC – 14 AD). [10] Ziegler tried to collect evidence of panthea, but his list consists of simple dedications "to all the gods" or "to the Twelve Gods", which are not necessarily true pantheons in the sense of a temple housing a cult that literally worships all the gods. It was originally built as a temple to the gods of Ancient Rome, and rebuilt about 126 AD during Hadrian 's reign. The bust on the left is a portrait of Baldassare Peruzzi, derived from a plaster portrait by Giovanni Duprè. [25], The Augustan Pantheon was destroyed along with other buildings in a huge fire in the year 80 AD. The final niche on the right side has a statue of St. Anastasio (1725) by Bernardino Cametti.[69]. The altar in the chapel is covered with false marble. La dernière modification de cette page a été faite le 6 février 2020 à 11:23. Mark and Hutchison estimated that, if normal weight concrete had been used throughout, the stresses in the arch would have been some 80% greater. English: The main altar of the church Sancta Maria ad Martyres (the Pantheon), in Rome, Italy. [51] Finite element analysis of the structure by Mark and Hutchison[53] found a maximum tensile stress of only 0.128 MPa (18.5 psi) at the point where the dome joins the raised outer wall. The bronze epigram commemorated Pope Clement XI's restoration of the sanctuary. [5], The pediment was decorated with relief sculpture, probably of gilded bronze. It was rebuilt by the emperor Hadrian and probably dedicated about 126 AD. Par exemple : le panthéon grec, égyptien, hindou. [72] Others include the Rotunda of Mosta in Malta (1833). They also organize picket guards at the tombs. Cassius Dio, a Graeco-Roman senator, consul and author of a comprehensive History of Rome, writing approximately 75 years after the Pantheon's reconstruction, mistakenly attributed the domed building to Agrippa rather than Hadrian. Among those buried there are the painters Raphael and Annibale Carracci, the composer Arcangelo Corelli, and the architect Baldassare Peruzzi. [64] The oculus also serves as a cooling and ventilation method. À propos de Wikipédia; Avertissements; Rechercher. It is also substantially larger than earlier domes. [14] Godfrey and Hemsoll maintain that the word Pantheon "need not denote a particular group of gods, or, indeed, even all the gods, since it could well have had other meanings. In the Chapel of the Crucifixion, the Roman brick wall is visible in the niches. "[22], The only passages referring to the decoration of the Agrippan Pantheon written by an eyewitness are in Pliny the Elder's Natural History. [12] It seems highly significant that Dio does not quote the simplest explanation for the name—that the Pantheon was dedicated to all the gods. This description was widely accepted until the late 20th century. [27] How the building was actually used is not known. Her argument is particularly interesting in light of Heilmeyer's argument that, based on stylistic evidence, Apollodorus of Damascus, Trajan's architect, was the obvious architect. All other extant ancient domes were either designed with tie-rods, chains and banding or have been retrofitted with such devices to prevent collapse. "[12], Since the French Revolution, when the church of Sainte-Geneviève in Paris was deconsecrated and turned into the secular monument called the Panthéon of Paris, the generic term pantheon has sometimes been applied to other buildings in which illustrious dead are honoured or buried. Il Pantheon (in greco antico: Πάνθεον [ἱερόν], Pántheon [hierón], «[tempio] di tutti gli dei»), in latino classico Pantheum, è un edificio della Roma antica situato nel rione Pigna nel centro storico, costruito come tempio dedicato a tutte le divinità passate, presenti e future. Lise Hetland argues that the present construction began in 114, under Trajan, four years after it was destroyed by fire for the second time (Oros. It has a rectangular floor and is made entirely from marble, with a limestone base. Almost two thousand years after it was built, the Pantheon's dome is still the world's largest unreinforced concrete dome. "[20] However, archaeological excavations have shown that the Pantheon of Agrippa had been completely destroyed except for the façade. Each zone of the interior, from floor to ceiling, is subdivided according to a different scheme. Two kings of Italy are buried in the Pantheon: Vittorio Emanuele II and Umberto I, as well as Umberto's Queen, Margherita. [73] Other notable replicas, such as The Rotunda (New York) (1818), do not survive. The present arrangement is from 1811, designed by Antonio Muñoz. Enshrined on the apse above the high altar is a 7th-century Byzantine icon of the Virgin and Child, given by Phocas to Pope Boniface IV on the occasion of the dedication of the Pantheon for Christian worship on 13 May 609. Celui des Égyptiens nous est également assez bien connu (le panthéon égyptien doit être considéré spirituellement différent par rapport à ceux de la Grèce et de Rome[réf. Het is een herbouw van een eerder pantheon op deze plaats dat in 80 door brand werd verwoest. In the Imperial period, it expressed the invincibility of deities embraced officially, such as Jupiter, Mars, Hercules, and Sol. They were floated by barge down the Nile River when the water level was high during the spring floods, and then transferred to vessels to cross the Mediterranean Sea to the Roman port of Ostia. English: An image of Pantheon in Rome, Italy. Masses are celebrated there on Sundays and holy days of obligation. The epigraph was written by Pietro Bembo. It is also known as the Madonna of the Railing, because it originally hung in the niche on the left-hand side of the portico, where it was protected by a railing. Jump to navigation Jump to search. Behind the tomb is the statue known as the Madonna del Sasso (Madonna of the Rock) so named because she rests one foot on a boulder. The golden lamp above the tomb burns in honor of Victor Emmanuel III, who died in exile in 1947. [46] These were dragged more than 100 km (62 miles) from the quarry to the river on wooden sledges. Pantheon in Rome: The History Behind Its Perfect Ancient Architecture. It is one of the best-preserved of all Ancient Roman buildings, in large part because it has been in continuous use throughout its history and, since the 7th century, the Pantheon has been in use as a church dedicated to "St. Mary and the Martyrs" (Latin: Sancta Maria ad Martyres) but informally known as "Santa Maria Rotonda". Place du Panthéon, a square in Paris; Pantheon, London, an 18th-century place of entertainment; Pantheon of National Revival Heroes, a Bulgarian national monument and ossuary; Pantheon, Moscow, a planned but uncompleted memorial … 3864 x 2577 jpeg 1636kB. [9] In fact, the concept of a pantheon dedicated to all the gods is questionable. Dans l'Antiquité, les villes étaient créées sous l'égide d'un dieu protecteur de la ville (« divinité poliade »), et le fondateur trouvait sa légitimité en s'affirmant être le fils d'un dieu (surtout chez les Grecs). [44] This substitution was probably a result of logistical difficulties at some stage in the construction. In the 15th century, the Pantheon was adorned with paintings: the best-known is the Annunciation by Melozzo da Forlì. [69], The dome photographed with a fisheye lens in 2016, South east view of the Pantheon from Piazza della Minerva, 2006, The dome of the Pantheon seen from the hill of Janiculum, Tomb of King Victor Emmanuel II, "Father of his Country", As the best-preserved example of an Ancient Roman monumental building, the Pantheon has been enormously influential in Western architecture from at least the Renaissance on;[70] starting with Brunelleschi's 42-metre (138 ft) dome of Santa Maria del Fiore in Florence, completed in 1436. This discordance has not always been appreciated, and the attic level was redone according to Neoclassical taste in the 18th century.[68]. Pantheon Rome … Français : L'autel principal de l'église Santa Maria ad Martyres (le Pantheon), Rome, Italie. Later construction raised the level of the ground leading to the portico, eliminating these steps. Pantheon adalah sebuah bangunan kuil berbentuk bulat yang dibina dari tahun 27 SM sehingga ia diselesaikan pada zaman pemerintahan Maharaja Hadrian (118 SM-28 M) pada tahun 126 M di pusat kota Roma. In the walls at the back of the Pantheon's portico are two huge niches, perhaps intended for statues of Augustus Caesar and Agrippa. En grec ancien, πᾶν (pãn) signifie « tout » et θεός (theos), « dieu ». The Pantheon is in use as a Catholic church. The height to the oculus and the diameter of the interior circle are the same, 43.3 metres (142 ft), so the whole interior would fit exactly within a cube (or, a 43.3-m sphere could fit within the interior). On 26 May 1929, this deaconry was suppressed to establish the Cardinal Deaconry of S. Apollinare alle Terme Neroniane-Alessandrine. In the early decades of the 20th century, a piece of the original, as could be reconstructed from Renaissance drawings and paintings, was recreated in one of the panels. On the right wall is the Incredulity of St Thomas (1633) by Pietro Paolo Bonzi. [43] The taller porch would have hidden the second pediment visible on the intermediate block. Het Pantheon is een antieke tempel in Rome uit de 2e eeuw n.Chr. The overall effect is immediate viewer orientation according to the major axis of the building, even though the cylindrical space topped by a hemispherical dome is inherently ambiguous. [65][66] In antiquity, the coffers may have contained bronze rosettes symbolising the starry firmament. It is also said that the bronze was used by Bernini in creating his famous baldachin above the high altar of St. Peter's Basilica, but, according to at least one expert, the Pope's accounts state that about 90% of the bronze was used for the cannon, and that the bronze for the baldachin came from Venice. The Pantheon is a former Roman temple, now a Catholic church (Basilica di Santa Maria ad Martyres or Basilica of St. Mary and the Martyrs), in Rome, Italy, on the site of an earlier temple commissioned by Marcus Agrippa during the reign of Augustus (27 BC – 14 AD). The stucco relief on the left, Dream of St Joseph, is by Paolo Benaglia, and the one on the right, Rest during the flight from Egypt, is by Carlo Monaldi. [8] His uncertainty strongly suggests that "Pantheon" (or Pantheum) was merely a nickname, not the formal name of the building.