Marcus Aurelius named his adoptive brother co-emperor. Casaubon v. 8.16, uploaded to, 14 July 2013 Page 1 of 128 The meditations of Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Originally translated by Meric Casaubon About this edition Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus was Emperor of Rome from 161 to his death, the last of the “Five Good Emperors.” He was nephew, son-in-law, and adoptive son of Antonius Pius. Marco Aurelio (/ ɑː r i l i ə s / o / ɑː r i l j ə s / ; América : Marco Aurelio Augusto, 26 de abril de 121 - 17 de marzo 180) fue un emperador romano 161-180 y una filósofo estoico. His father, Marcus Annius Verus III was a politician and a nobleman. [244], In 163, the Parthians intervened in Osroene, a Roman client in upper Mesopotamia centred on Edessa, and installed their own king on its throne. Loss is … Lucius Dasumius Tullius Tuscus, a distant relative of Hadrian, was in Upper Pannonia, succeeding the experienced Marcus Nonius Macrinus. [23][24][note 1], Marcus's mother, Domitia Lucilla Minor (also known as Domitia Calvilla), was the daughter of the Roman patrician P. Calvisius Tullus and inherited a great fortune (described at length in one of Pliny's letters) from her parents and grandparents. Reflecting on the speech he had written on taking his consulship in 143, when he had praised the young Marcus, Fronto was ebullient: 'There was then an outstanding natural ability in you; there is now perfected excellence. [ˈmaːrkʊs̠ au̯ˈreːlijʊs̠ an̪t̪oːˈniːnʊs̠], persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire, Last Words of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius, "De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and Their Families", Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, 'Marcus Aurelius: Plato's Philosopher King', 'Column of Marcus Aurelius: Overall view, of base and column', 'The Columns of Trajan and Marcus Aurelius', Epiphanius' Treatise on Weights and Measures – The Syriac Version, Modern Stoicism: A Case for a Philosopher-King, The Thoughts of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus,, Articles with dead external links from October 2016, Short description is different from Wikidata, Pages using infobox philosopher with embed equal yes, Pages using multiple image with auto scaled images, Pages using Sister project links with wikidata mismatch, Articles incorporating a citation from the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles incorporating citation to the NSRW, Wikipedia articles incorporating citation to the NSRW with an wstitle parameter, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CINII identifiers, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Imperator Caesar Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus, Tiberius Aelius Antoninus (born 152, died before 156), Titus Aurelius Fulvus Antoninus (161–165), elder twin brother of Commodus, dashed lines indicate adoption; dotted lines indicate love affairs/unmarried relationships. My name is Maximus Decimus Meridius, commander of the Armies of the North, General of the Felix Legions, loyal servant to the true emperor, Marcus Aurelius. [239] At the end of the year, Lucius took the title Armeniacus, despite having never seen combat; Marcus declined to accept the title until the following year. [246] Before the end of 163, however, Roman forces had moved north to occupy Dausara and Nicephorium on the northern, Parthian bank. 1 [42] One of his teachers, Diognetus, a painting master, proved particularly influential; he seems to have introduced Marcus Aurelius to the philosophic way of life. Fronto felt that, because of Marcus's prominence and public duties, lessons were more important now than they had ever been before. Birley, 'Hadrian to the Antonines', p. 156. He sent a note to the imperial freedman Charilas, asking if he could call on the emperors. His paternal grandfather served as consul twice, and his maternal grandmother was heiress to one of the most massive of Roman fortunes. Marcus thus was marked out as a future joint emperor at the age of just under 17, though, as it turned out, he was not to succeed until his 40th year. Maximus : Two years, two hundred and sixty-four days and this morning. Marcus Aurelius: You have proven your valor once again, Maximus. As the biographer wrote, 'No one missed the lenient ways of Pius'. [165]) Faustina was three months pregnant at her husband's accession. Life changed drastically for Marcus Aurelius, and Rome in 161 when Antoninus Pius died, leaving Marcus effectively as the new Emperor. Marcus Aurelius died on March 17, 180. Lucius took the title 'Medicus',[255] and the emperors were again hailed as imperatores, becoming 'imp. Do I not know that you went to Alsium with the intention of devoting yourself to games, joking, and complete leisure for four whole days? [125], In 149, Faustina gave birth again, to twin sons. The infants were buried in the Mausoleum of Hadrian, where their epitaphs survive. [37] Marcus thanks his grandfather for teaching him 'good character and avoidance of bad temper'. [133], Lucius started his political career as a quaestor in 153. This incongruous position did little harm in times of general security and prosperity, but when either of these were threatened, the local population might denounce Christians, a governor might be forced to act, and the law, as the central authority saw it, must then run its course. Wife of M. Annius Libo: Levick (2014), p. 163. [114] Marcus kept in close touch with Fronto, but would ignore Fronto's scruples. He may not even have been crowned in Armenia; the ceremony may have taken place in Antioch, or even Ephesus. [211] Fronto replied: 'What? Will you accept this great honor I have offered you? [69] Marcus would later caution himself against taking the name too seriously: 'See that you do not turn into a Caesar; do not be dipped into the purple dye – for that can happen'. Marcus Aurelius (Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus; 26 April 121 – 17 March 180) was Roman emperor from 161 to 180 and a Stoic philosopher. [180] Marcus told Fronto of his reading – Coelius and a little Cicero – and his family. The Parthian army dispersed in the Tigris. III'. Champlin, 'Chronology of Fronto', p. 138. Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus was born in April 26, 121 AD, to a prominent family. [170], Soon after the emperors' accession, Marcus's eleven-year-old daughter, Annia Lucilla, was betrothed to Lucius (in spite of the fact that he was, formally, her uncle). Fronto exercised a complete mastery of Latin, capable of tracing expressions through the literature, producing obscure synonyms, and challenging minor improprieties in word choice. [84], After taking the toga virilis in 136, Marcus probably began his training in oratory. [94][note 6] He did not care much for Atticus, though Marcus was eventually to put the pair on speaking terms. [162] If his funeral followed those of his predecessors, his body would have been incinerated on a pyre at the Campus Martius, and his spirit would have been seen as ascending to the gods' home in the heavens. [270] He took great care in the theory and practice of legislation. A great memorable quote from the Gladiator movie on - Maximus: You sent for me, Caesar? Marcus Aurelio "Maximus" Born: 1973-08-18 AGE: 47 Fortaleza, Ceara Brazil. This may have been the port city of Kattigara, described by Ptolemy (c. 150) as being visited by a Greek sailor named Alexander and lying beyond the Golden Chersonese (i.e. Marcus, with his preference for the philosophic life, found the imperial office unappealing. Now heir to the throne, Marcus studied Greek and Latin under tutors such as Herodes Atticus and Marcus Cornelius Fronto. [8] Inscriptions and coin finds supplement the literary sources. “Tell me again, Maximus. “The best revenge,” he said, “is not to be like that.” Meaning: When you hurt others, you hurt the group and you hurt yourself. However, although he was granted the name Augustus and the title imperator , and was elected Pontifex Maximus , Marcus appears to have taken these positions with some hesitation, having to be compelled to do so. Together they had at least 12 children, including Commodus, Marcus’s successor. [182] Soon, however, he would find he had many anxieties. [18], Marcus's paternal family was of Roman Italo-Hispanic origins. Marcus Aurelius, the byname is Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus, born on 26 April 121 and died on 17 March 180. [77] He was required to make a speech to the assembled senators as well, making oratorical training essential for the job. His son Commodus became emperor and soon ended the northern military efforts. He ruled with Lucius Verus as co-emperor from 161 until Verus' death in 169. It is most probable, however, that Marcus’s conscience impelled him to carry out loyally what he believed to have been the plan by which alone he himself had eventually reached the purple. Marcus Aurelius : When was the last time you were home? Fronto was hugely pleased. Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus was born in April 26, 121 AD, to a prominent family. The emperors permitted free speech, evidenced by the fact that the comedy writer Marullus was able to criticize them without suffering retribution. Maximus Decimus Meridius was a high ranking Roman general in command of multiple Roman legions who served under the Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius in his Twelve Year Campaign against the barbarians in Germania. [57] Marcus became M. Aelius Aurelius Verus, and Lucius became L. Aelius Aurelius Commodus. The Death of Marcus Aurelius. [200][note 14], More bad news arrived: the Syrian governor's army had been defeated by the Parthians, and retreated in disarray. [150] Thus, although the senate planned to confirm Marcus alone, he refused to take office unless Lucius received equal powers. [153][note 9] It was the first time that Rome was ruled by two emperors. together with the preliminary discourse of the learned Gataker” He has symbolized the Golden Age of the Roman Empire for many generations in the West. [124] Domitia would die in 151. [256] On 12 October of that year, Marcus proclaimed two of his sons, Annius and Commodus, as his heirs. The formalities of the position would follow. Marcus Aurelius—and indeed all the Stoics—believed that we were part of an inner-connected organism. He might have died in 152, the same year as Marcus's sister Cornificia. [5] Marcus's own Meditations offer a window on his inner life, but are largely undateable and make few specific references to worldly affairs.